Management Theory and Practice


Management is a multipurpose organ that manages business, managers, work, and workers. It involves getting a certain group of people to use the available resources efficiently to reach the objectives of the organization. In the modern theory of operational management, it is important to plan, organize, and coordinate all processes and resources in the organization efficiently.

System theory

Systems theory is one of the management theories that stems from a system made up of various parts that work together towards achieving a certain goal. This means that if one part of the system fails, then the entire system may not be as productive any more. It entails inputs, processes, outputs, and outcomes with each new feedback. On an organizational level, inputs are the resources that go through all elements of management in order to contribute to the organization’s goal. They include the raw materials, technology, money, and people. The outputs are the final products and services that go through the processes after the inputs. They include the improved productivity and quality of life of the clients and customers. Feedback comes from the people that carry out the processes, the users and consumers of the products, and the environment which the organization serves.

The system theory may seem a bit basic but it has a broader perspective on how managers examine workplace patterns and events. Those who comprehend it are able to recognize and pick out the different systems that affect workers. This helps to have effective central coordination of the organizational programs to working as a whole, instead of each department working in isolation. Thus, achieving the organization’s main goals and mission becomes easier.

Roles and skills of Managers

McCrimmon (2010) has illustrated today’s manager as an investor, customer, sports coach, and partner who engages and manages knowledge workers to get the work done. Managers plan and allocate available resources to obtain outputs of the best quality and actively develop their people.

A manager combines and coordinates people, technology, job tasks, and resources to achieve organizational objectives effectively. A manager develops outlines and clarifies the mission, policies and aims of the organization, establishes structures and systems of delegating and sharing responsibilities, sets priorities by reviewing and revising the organization’s goals, and maintains effective communication within the group. He selects, motivates, trains, and appraises the staff, provides them with favorable working conditions and ensures that different departments and parts of work interrelate. Manager also secures funds and budgets while evaluating accomplishments and accountability of the organization as a whole (Waldron, 1994)

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Managerial Skills Necessary or Effective Management of an Organization

Effective management of an organization results in increased productivity and service quality. It involves implementation of organization’s strategies in cooperation with workforce motivation towards increased productivity. It ensures each working person succeeds and a team achieves necessary results. The major aim of training and mentoring a manager is to improve his/her effectiveness.

Effective leadership skills involve recognition of different situational approaches and different leadership styles. Leadership is an act of getting people excited about doing something that ought to be done. It is an enjoyable and challenging task that fosters the development of interpersonal skills. The leader considers flexibility and capabilities of a person in different situations, including leader-member relations. The tasks to be performed can be defined by the leader either proper or not. This is achievable by knowing the employees’ abilities well enough to know what approach works well with them. Getting the members to follow involves pioneering the act and goal, enlisting others to share the idea and vision, empowering them to perform their duties, being a role model, and, finally, encouraging and celebrating each achieved goal with them. A manager should always emphasize the needs that motivate the employees, make choices that satisfy their needs for affiliation, achievement, and power, and reward for particular behaviors. Over time people have different needs due to their life experiences.

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Effective communication skills include listening, talking, and writing. They are necessary for good organizational management. When managers communicate properly, they ensure that information is clearly processed and related to their teams while keeping in mind the organization’s vision and productivity maintenance. Conflict management skills are required to recognize source, role, and consequences of conflict. They ensure that a manager becomes a creative problem-solver who assesses the problems and conflicts, enquires, brainstorms, and produces alternative solutions to the encountered problems. It is impossible to eliminate conflict but its management fosters understanding and appreciation of differences (Darling & Walker, 2001).

Managerial Roles in the Management of People and Organizational Processes

Main managerial roles include collaboration, building employee commitment, and capacity for building a healthy organization. In any company, the human resources team carries out important work activities. They need to rely on strategic management in order to perform effectively. At any level of organization human resource personnel and managers should collaborate so that the team advises managers and supervisors on how to assign employees different roles and successfully adapt to the environment. Employees should be committed to their jobs. Strategies should be in place to increase and build commitment of the employees to the organization. The human resource team should increase capacity of the company so that it develops a competitive business advantage.

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