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Definition and Overview of Job Evaluation
Job evaluation refers to the relative worth of a variety of jobs based on the consistent set of jobs, as well as individual factors such as skills and qualifications referred. The major objective of job evaluation is to specifically determine the kind of jobs that should receive just payment than the rest. Multiple methods, including job grading, factor comparison and job ranking are extensively taken into consideration during job evaluation. According to Milkovich, Newman & Gerhart (2014), each method is equivalent in matters of accuracy and reliability as the others in pricing and ranking different jobs. It is through job evaluation that the determination of salary and wage negotiations is made possible.
Relevance of Job Evaluation
From the perspective of the following, there are the major reasons of job evaluation:
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- Assist in determining job responsibilities and positions that are the same for the purposes of transfers, assignments and assigned work, lateral moves, promotions, and pay, and other interior parity issues.
- Useful in determining proper salary or pay grades, as well as making decisions regarding compensation issues.
- It is the best way to develop job specifications, performance appraisal, competencies, performance standards, and a job description system.
- Assist in development of career patching or planning, succession planning, and career paths.
- Assist in the employee recruitment process by stating job responsibilities that are essential in the assessment of applicant qualifications, job posting, and suitable compensation or salary negotiation.
When Should Job Evaluation Be Conducted?
The performance of job evaluation in the biggest firms is treated as a moving target. Job classification, in conjunction with job evaluation, can occur due to changes in a team leader or supervisory responsibilities, increased authority, new procedures or programs, downsizing and layoffs, taking on additional responsibilities, and new technology. To coin this, most of human resource staff recognizes that some of their roles are built upon job evaluation and job classification (Milkovich, Newman & Gerhart, 2014).
Significance and Uses of Job Analysis
In eachorganization of any size in the world,the responsibilities, job duties, structure, and job assignments are deemed to change. In such instances, it is crucial to analyze and illustrate revised or new jobs in an effort to ensure a better evaluation. Job analysis assists in preparation of sound human resource policies and practices. This is because it provides a deeper understanding of various behavioral needs of the job, and further plays a significant role in defending employment practices (Milkovich, Newman & Gerhart, 2014). It does this through the following major roles:
1. HR Planning
Job analysis offers beneficial information to those in the human resource planning. It is necessary for demand and supply forecasting of the human resource.
2. Recruitment and Selection
Through job analysis, there is provision of necessary information resourceful in conducting recruitment and selection of workers in the company. The exercise of recruitment helps in generating a pool of candidates who are ready to perform in the organization; selection helps to select the best suitable candidates who are anticipated to perform better in the organization (Milkovich, Newman & Gerhart, 2014).
3. Training and Development
Updated description and specification of statements, assists in ensuring the requirements of training development needs in the organization (Milkovich, Newman & Gerhart, 2014). Through comparison of skill and knowledge of present employees with the anticipated level of performance, the need for both training and development requirement can be evaluated.
4. Compensation Management
Job analysis provides requisite information for managing compensation of staff. Further, job ranking is done to determine job surveys, and this greatly helps in compensation decisions.
5. Performance Appraisal
Appraisal of employees is achieved best by the usage of job analysis, since job analysis will provide clear-cut standards of performance for every job in the organization (Milkovich, Newman & Gerhart, 2014).
Source of Information to be Included in Job Analysis
Under job analysis, an organization can gather and disseminate various elements that relate to jobs, as shown below.
Duties and Tasks: It is recognized that the primary unit of any job is the execution of specified duties and tasks. Information regarding this may be collected from elements such as standards, equipment, complexity, skill, and frequency.
Environment: Performance of any job is accomplished only if there is the presence of positive physical requirements. This means that the work environment may entail unpleasant conditions like temperature extremes and offensive odors.
Equipment and Tools: Some specified tasks and duties can only be done by use of specific tools and equipment, such as proper and protective clothing. It is imperative that all these items are listed under job analysis.
Relationship between Job Analysis, Job Specification, and Job Description
a). Aspects considered under Job Analysis
Any job analysis should be done by collecting various important components by sourcing from aspects such as duties and tasks, the environment, tools and equipment, and relationships between supervisors, seniors, and juniors. Any successful implementation will necessitate carrying out of job analysis, and later to be incorporated with other areas.
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b). Job Specification
Job specification is extracted from both job description and job analysis. This deals with individual characteristics that an employee should possess for him/her to be considered to be worthy for the job; and this includes aspects, such as skills, personal qualifications, mental and physical demands that are necessary for effective job performance.
Uses of job specification: It is beneficial for recruitment and selection purposes of right candidates in pursuit of job fulfillment.
c). Job Description
This refers to a documented statement specifying duties, organizational relationships, and responsibilities needed from every employee in the organization (Milkovich, Newman& Gerhart 2014). It is composed of various components, such as job duties and responsibilities, code number, Division and department, job title, date of revision, job summary, job position required, and organizational relationship.
Relevance of Job Description:
- Helps to prevent both gaps and overlaps at work;
- Useful in identifying the needs of employee training;
- Essential for the placement and orientation of new employees.
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