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Philosopher Karl Marx was born on May 5, 1818 in Germany and died on March 14, 1883 in the United Kingdom. Karl Marx questioned idealism as well as abstract thoughts in philosophy. He maintained his belief that realities lie in materialistic economics. He also perceived civil society as the center of study focused on understanding historical development of human beings (Barnes, 2013). Marx is a renowned scholar as well as a political activist who contributed to communism. His Marxist theory had a significant contribution to an intellectual base in certain subsequent types of communism. Marxism gave rise to revolutionary socialism that was conceived as retaliation for capitalism and liberalism in Europe. He is remembered for his deep analysis of history, especially in historical materialism, and of socioeconomic change. His main drive was an aim to change the world to a better place for humankind.
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Mikhail Bakunin was born in 1814 and died in 1876. He was a renowned Russian revolutionary anarchist of his time and the starter of collective anarchism. In most cases, he is regarded as one of the most influential philosophers who were studying anarchism, as well as a principal founder of the common social anarchist tradition. His political beliefs opposed statist systems and hierarchical systems of authority. His political beliefs were founded on certain concepts including liberty, federalism, materialism socialism and anti-theism. He also introduced the idea of authority and a free thought, indicating that there is no constant authority. According to him, there is only a temporary and voluntary authority. Most importantly, Mikhail Bakunin instituted the idea of anti-theologism when he started his struggle against theology since he perceived it as a complete consistency of absolute naturalism. In other words, nothing was evil apart from theological perspective of God and sin (Garson, 2013). Moreover, his socialism can be termed as that of collective anarchism whereby it seeks confirmation from political equality through economic equality.
Muhammad Iqbal was born on November 9, 1877 and died on April 21, 1938. He was a philosopher, poet and politician throughout British India. He is known to have driven the Pakistan Movement and is usually considered a popular figure in Urdu literature since he has literary works in both Persian and Urdu languages. He stands alone in a post-classical period of Islamic philosophy. He was a reviewer of discipline in the Muslim settings. He introduced the concept of Khudi, meaning “self”. He tried to empower individualism in Muslims. He has been known for his influential capability of establishing a separated Muslim state. He greatly contributed to understanding of such notions as destiny, spiritual salvation, as well a political emancipation that can be realized by the Muslims (Barnes, 2013). He also introduced the concept of love and freedom among the Muslims. Moreover, he rejected fatalism since he did not perceive history as an area of divinity for Muslims, but for any human beings to realize their talents.
Mary Wollstonecraft was born on April 27, 1759 in the United Kingdom and died on September 10, 1797. She is remembered for her philosophical and political contributions. She was engaged in a strenuous and a lucid fight for the rights of female in the society. She introduced major discussion topics including the one on different human natures, which defined that both male and female beings have diverse natures. She also raised questions concerning education, equality and justice, indicating that women were treated worse than their female counterparts in terms of intellectual virtues as well as governmental activities. She gave several reasons for the poor performance of women in those fields, but the greatest was that women were denied liberty to do things their way (Garson, 2013). Lastly, she developed the idea of social progress and suggested education as a trampoline towards improving social conditions of women in the society. Moreover, she mentioned financial independency, equitable roles in family affairs and access to careers as ways to progress.
Simone de Beauvior
Simone de Beauvior was born on January 9, 1908 in France and died on April 14, 1986. She identified herself as an author instead of a philosopher and referred to herself as a midwife of existential ethics developed by Sartre. She is remembered for her significant contributions to ethics, existentialism, feminist theory, significance of activism and public intellectuality, politics and phenomenology. Her critique on women’s oppression has been grounded in phenomenological-existential studies. In her works, she focused on people’s relationships with time, one another and themselves. She also discussed politics and ethics, describing the criteria for ethical actions and the way one can differentiate between ethical and unethical projects in political settings (Shiller & Shiller, 2011). Most importantly, Simone developed the idea of consciousness in any intentional activity stating that an individual can be separated from his or her freedom. She also argued for sex equality, indicating that masculine ideologies exploit sexual diversity in order to develop sex inequality and show that equality erases sexual diversity in attempts to establish masculine as an absolute human type.
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Margot Badran is a historian and a genders studies specialist who devotes her life to work in the Muslim world. She has written many stories about feminism in Muslim society and has been regarded as a philosopher in a modern world. She considers a growing movement among women in the Muslim society. That movement comes from an inherited patriarchal Islamic society into an egalitarian Muslim society (Badran, 2008). She considers gender equality concept as it has been developed in the common Quran. Moreover, she suggests the idea of reforms in Muslim family laws all representing Islamic feminism. She also distinguishes all that is considered secular from what is considered religious according to the Muslim Society. Margot Badran states that Islamic feminism has continually insisted on separation between religion and state hence upholding the secular state (Badran, 2008). She considers the situation faced by Islamic feminism indicating that a strong reform is required in order to understand the importance of working with other people in the communities.
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